EIP – Message Splitter


Enterprise Integration Patterns (EIPs) provide a well-established vocabulary and set of design guidelines for building cohesive and scalable messaging architectures. The Splitter Router pattern, a fundamental component of EIPs, plays a crucial role in effectively distributing messages across multiple destinations. This article delves into the intricacies of the Splitter Router pattern, exploring its structure, usage scenarios, and implementation considerations. It highlights the pattern’s versatility in addressing various integration needs, such as decomposing complex messages, parallel processing, and load balancing. Additionally, it examines the interplay between the Splitter Router and other EIPs, demonstrating its integration potential within broader messaging systems.


In the realm of enterprise integration, messaging serves as a cornerstone for facilitating communication and data exchange between applications and systems. Message-oriented middleware (MOM) platforms, such as Apache Kafka, RabbitMQ, and IBM MQ, provide robust infrastructure for managing and handling messages efficiently. However, designing and implementing complex messaging flows can be challenging, requiring careful consideration of message routing, transformation, and error handling.

Enterprise Integration Patterns (EIPs) emerged as a standardized approach to address these challenges, offering a collection of reusable design patterns that provide a common language and methodology for constructing messaging architectures. Among these patterns, the Splitter Router stands out as a versatile construct for splitting a single message into multiple destinations or fragments and routing them accordingly.

Structure and Functionality of the Splitter Router

The Splitter Router pattern consists of two primary components: a splitter and a router. The splitter is responsible for dividing the original message into smaller sub-messages or fragments based on a predefined logic. This logic can be based on message content, message headers, or external factors such as time or event triggers.

The router, on the other hand, receives the split messages from the splitter and determines their ultimate destinations. It can employ various routing strategies, including round-robin, load balancing, or message content-based routing. The router ensures that each sub-message is routed to the appropriate destination, ensuring that the message’s intended recipients receive the relevant information.

Usage Scenarios and Benefits

The Splitter Router pattern finds application in a wide range of scenarios, particularly when handling large messages or complex data structures. Here are some prominent usage scenarios:

  1. Decomposing Complex Messages: The Splitter Router can break down a large message into smaller, more manageable sub-messages, facilitating processing by multiple components or systems.
  2. Parallel Processing: By distributing sub-messages across multiple destinations, the Splitter Router enables parallel processing, enabling faster handling of large volumes of data.
  3. Load Balancing: It can distribute incoming messages evenly across multiple recipients, promoting efficient resource utilization and load balancing.
  4. Aggregating Results: The Splitter Router can be used in conjunction with an Aggregator to collect and reassemble the results of parallel processing or to reconstruct complex data structures.

Implementation Considerations

Here are some key implementation considerations for the Splitter Router pattern:

  1. Splitter Logic: Carefully define the splitter logic to ensure accurate message splitting, preventing data loss or misalignment.
  2. Router Strategy: Choose the appropriate routing strategy based on the requirements of the application, such as round-robin, load balancing, or content-based routing.
  3. Error Handling: Implement robust error handling mechanisms to gracefully handle potential issues during message splitting or routing, ensuring message integrity and business continuity.
  4. Performance Optimization: Optimize the splitter and router components to handle high message throughput and maintain system performance under load.
  5. Integration with MOM Platforms: Utilize the capabilities of specific MOM platforms to effectively integrate the Splitter Router with existing messaging infrastructure.

Interplay with Other EIPs

The Splitter Router pattern seamlessly integrates with other EIPs, forming a powerful toolkit for constructing sophisticated messaging architectures. Here are a few examples:

  1. Aggregator: The Splitter Router can work in conjunction with an Aggregator to collect and reassemble the results of parallel processing or to reconstruct complex data structures.
  2. Content-Based Router: The Splitter Router can be combined with a Content-Based Router to route sub-messages based on their content, enabling targeted delivery to specific recipients.
  3. Recipient List: The Splitter Router can utilize a Recipient List to dynamically determine the destinations for sub-messages based on external factors or real-time conditions.
  4. Message Filter: The Splitter Router can be complemented by a Message Filter to selectively route sub-messages based on specific message criteria, eliminating unnecessary processing.

Code Sample

#include <iostream>
#include <string>

using namespace std;

class Splitter {
  void split(const string& message, std::ostream& output1, std::ostream& output2) {
    for (char c : message) {
      if (c >= 'A' && c <= 'Z') {
        output1 << c;
      } else {
        output2 << c;

class Router {
  void route(const string& message, std::ostream& output1, std::ostream& output2) {
    Splitter splitter;
    splitter.split(message, output1, output2);

int main() {
  string message = "Welcome to Enterprise Integration Patterns!";

  std::ofstream uppercaseOutput("uppercase.txt");
  std::ofstream lowercaseOutput("lowercase.txt");

  Router router;
  router.route(message, uppercaseOutput, lowercaseOutput);

  return 0;

This code first defines two classes: Splitter and Router. The Splitter class takes a message and two output streams as input and splits the message into individual characters, sending uppercase characters to the first output stream and lowercase characters to the second output stream. The Router class takes a message and two output streams as input and calls the split() method of the Splitter class to route the message to the appropriate output streams.

The main() function creates a string, opens two output streams, and then calls the route() method of the Router class to split the message and route it to the two output streams. The std::ofstream class is used to open output streams. The uppercase.txt file will contain all uppercase characters from the message, and the lowercase.txt file will contain all lowercase characters from the message.


The Splitter Router pattern stands as a cornerstone of Enterprise Integration Patterns, providing a flexible and scalable mechanism for splitting

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